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equation with constant coefficients (that is, when p(t) and q(t) are constants). Since a homogeneous equation is easier to solve compares to its nonhomogeneous counterpart, we start with second order linear homogeneous equations that contain constant coefficients only: a y″ + b y′ + c y = 0. Where a, b, and c are constants, a ≠ 0. 16 List of Symbols Symbol Meaning English Units SI Units a, a0, a1, a2, constants, lengths aij flexibility coefficient in./lb m/N [a] flexibility matrix in./lb m/N A area in2 m2 A, A0, A1, constants b, b1, b2, constants, lengths B,! B1, B2, constants B balancing weight lb N c, c' viscous damping coefficient lb-sec/in. N # s/m c, c0, c1, c2 ... Use the following formula to determine the extinction coefficient at 205 nm: E(205 nm) = 27 + 120 x (A280 divided by A205) The reading at 205 nm must be multiplied by the dilution factor before using the formula. May 30, 2013 · δ is the stiffness-proportional damping coefficient. Relationships between the modal equations and orthogonality conditions allow this equation to be rewritten as: where: ξ n is the critical-damping ratio; and; ω n is the natural frequency ( ω n = 2 π f n). Here, it can be seen that the critical-damping ratio varies with natural frequency.